The Maintenance WG has developed a minimal reference ontology for maintenance concepts commonly used in maintenance application ontologies. This bottom-up approach was motivated by use cases in asset reliability, maintenance, failure and maintenance management. The Maintenance reference ontology adheres to IOF Core and BFO.

The Maintenance Reference ontology can be found at and includes a detailed readme file. The readme file contains an image showing all the classes and object properties, their alignment with IOF Core and BFO and is given bellow.

The ontology is available as maintenance.rdf. This file includes a full set of annotations for each term.

The Maintenance WG meets every 2 weeks. In 2022 this was at 08:30 am Australian Western Standard Time but in 2023 will move to pm Australian time. The WG maintains active asynchronous communications on the Maintenance WG Slack channel. We maintain a private GitHub for current work and those interested should contact for more information. Past minutes of meetings are stored on the IOF section of the OAGI maintained Confluence site.

Application ontologies developed by this WG are documented in a number of papers and GIT sites. A list is below.

Examples of prior work by this group (or members of the group) relating to maintenance ontologies in reverse chronological order.

Woods C, Selway M, Bikaun T, Stumptner M, Hodkiewicz M., 2022. An ontology for maintenance activities and its application to data quality. In review for Semantic Web Journal

Woods, C., Selway, M., Hodkiewicz, M., Ameri, F., Stumptner, M. and Sobel, W., 2021. On the Notion of Maintenance State for Industrial Assets. FOMI 2021: 11th International Workshop on Formal Ontologies meet Industry, held at JOWO 2021: Episode VII The Bolzano Summer of Knowledge, September 11–18, 2021, Bolzano, Italy.

Hodkiewicz, M., Klüwer, J.W., Woods, C., Smoker, T. and Low, E., 2021. An ontology for reasoning over engineering textual data stored in FMEA spreadsheet tables. Computers in Industry, 131. An ontology for reasoning over engineering textual data stored in FMEA spreadsheet tables Note this uses ISO 15926-14 as the reference ontology but we have a BFO aligned version as well in the Maintenance WG private GIT.

Hodkiewicz, M., Low, E., Woods, C. and Ameri, F, 2020. Towards a Reference Ontology for Maintenance Work Management. Proceedings of the Workshops of I-ESA 2020, 17-11-20, Tarbes, France.

Karray, M.H., Ameri, F., Hodkiewicz, M. and Louge, T., 2019. ROMAIN: Towards a BFO compliant reference ontology for industrial maintenance. Applied Ontology, 14(2), pp.155-177. ROMAIN: Towards a BFO compliant reference ontology for industrial maintenance – IOS Press

Lupp, D.P., Hodkiewicz, M. and Skjæveland, M.G., 2020. Template libraries for industrial asset maintenance: A methodology for scalable and maintainable ontologies. In CEUR Workshop Proceedings (Vol. 2757, pp. 49-64). Technical University of Aachen. Template Libraries for Industrial Asset Maintenance: A Methodology for Scalable and Maintainable Ontologies

Last updated: 3/1/2023 by MH